Posted in Doggone Good Reads!

"Paws & Effect: The Healing Power of Dogs"

“Paws & Effect,” written by Sharon Sakson, is a tail-wagging good read that focuses on the remarkable impact of the relationship between humans and canines. Sakson creatively utilizes each chapter to convey factual and anecdotal information related to, among other things, the therapeutic role of the human-canine bond. “Paws & Effect” provides readers with an in-depth look into the foundational beginnings and current roles of assistance dogs to promote independence and overall wellness in humans. In addition to learning about the therapeutic impact of assistance dogs, readers can expect to learn about the astounding nature of military working dogs and the incredible bond formed between these animals and their handlers. Sakson bravely takes a dive into controversial topics by providing scientific insight into seizure alert dogs and olfactory detection of melanoma from our furry friends. “Paws & Effect” displays a phenomenal balance between personal accounts and existing scientific evidence of the healing power of dogs in mitigating physical and mental ailments in their human counterparts. An exquisite read, “Paws & Effect” is a must-read for dog lovers near and far!

Posted in Pets on the Net!

Miss Maggie Mae!

Meet Maggie Mae!  She is a beautiful Australian Shepherd whose adoption story will really tug at your heartstrings!  Maggie is a snuggle bug with a wiggle butt that will surely make you smile!

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I’m one spoiled pup!

  • Name:  Maggie Mae
  • How I Got My Name: My human’s mother decided I looked more like a Maggie Mae than a Luna Mae, like she considered naming me.
  • Breed: Australian Shepherd
  • Nickname: Maggie Moo, Magoo, Miss Mae, and Wiggle Butt
  • Age:  Approximately 7
  • Adoption Date:  October 2014
  • Adoption Story: I was running wild through the streets of Fishing Creek when a lady saw me and made efforts to bring me closer to her.  She only had Chinese food and pizza for leftovers, which I sneakily made my very own.  She gently welcomed me indoors and showered me with love and a warm bath.  Upon my surprise, she had two furry friends in her tiny home, but there was no place for me to run and play.  She posted flyers, knocked on doors, and made Facebook posts to find my previous owners or a new home.  No one claimed me from the flyers, and others reported they had seen me running around for weeks.  That’s when my now human momma asked to give me a home.  She then took me to a vet to be checked for a microchip and to be well cared for.  I had a long recovery from malnutrition, mange, and various allergic reactions, but my momma loved me more than ever, and I stayed by her side.  At first, she let me live with her parents because she needed to return to school.  She then found a home that suited both her and I!  While living with my grandparents, I spent my time snuggling and playing, and soon my scars healed, my hair grew back, and I comforted my human companions with butt wiggles. I am now living with my human momma and am an only dog surrounded by lots of love!

 

  • Best Tricks: I do this pretty nifty trick where I randomly throw myself on the ground, roll over, and get endless belly rubs and treats. I also sit, stay, roll over, hug, jump, and bark on command!
  • Collar Color I Sport Best:  Maroon!  It brings out my beautiful fur features! Maggie 2
     
  • My Fur Family:  Me…and only me!
  • Favorite Fur Friends:  I most enjoy Dallas, a big, loving bulldog, who lives with my grandparents!  I am also very fond of the twice daily company of a wiggle butt Corgi that always stops outside my home to say hi!
  • Favorite Activities:  My all-time favorite things to do include sunbathing, taking long walks, snuggling my humans, playing tug, and begging for food and treats.
  • Favorite Toy:  I love my moose stuffed animal, marrowbones stuffed with peanut butter, and a tattered rope tug toy.  Nothing beats a good play session with my toys!
  • Favorite Treats/Food: I love, love, love my (Xylitol-free) peanut butter, cooked green beans, and peas.  I have some allergies, however, that require me to eat gluten free food and treats!
  • Favorite Memories of Pet:  I once taught myself to roll over, and my human momma tells me that this is her all-time favorite memory of me!
  • Life Lessons Learned From Maggie: 
    1.  Always comfort a friend.
    2.  Long walks and sunsets can soothe and calm any bad day.
    3.  Be the weight… then they can’t move or leave!

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“Long walks and sunsets can soothe and calm any bad day.”  – Maggie Mae

 

 

 

Posted in Tail-Wagging Dog Blogs

Dear Anxiety

I find myself in a strange home.  Unfamiliar scents.  Unfamiliar sights.  I find comfort in her presence and get scared when she leaves.  I know the signs.  She’s putting on her shoes.  Please don’t grab your coat.  Won’t you stay a little longer?  I can tell she’s in a hurry.  I notice her brows are furrowed, and the outline of her lips are facing down, not up like they usually are.  Is she scared too?  I’m worried about her.  My breathing gets heavier, so she looks into my scared eyes and comforts me.  She tells me she’ll be back soon, but I’m afraid.  She turns the TV on, so I won’t feel so alone.  She grabs her key — a surefire sign she’ll soon be walking out the door.  First, she puts me in my crate which is somewhere I feel safe.  Her T-shirt she left with me gives me comfort as I await her return.  What’s that?  The door unlocks, and a familiar sight unfolds.  There she is.  My person.  I’m safe now.


There it is.  It’s loud and thunderous like a battlefield.  It echoes like a child screaming into a cave.  Echo, echo, echo.  It looms high, bright, and beautiful in the sky for just a moment.  Boom.  There goes another one.  They light up the night sky.  I run and hide into my safe place under the bed.  I shake.  My breathing gets heavier as I await another inevitable boom.  The boom of each firework shakes me to my core.  When will it end?


This is anxiety.  More specifically, this is anxiety through the eyes of Pinella.  Throughout her days as a service-dog-in-training, Pinella underwent observations which ultimately deemed her too anxious for service dog work.  Some of my very first recollections of life with Pinella involved preparing her for situations, wherein we had to be separated.  Screenshot_2016-06-27-16-34-22[3233]As a young puppy, goodbyes were often accompanied by fear and distress.  My heart ached to witness her feeling emotionally uneasy.  We practiced goodbyes, slowly increasing the duration of time spent away from one another.  First, it was a few seconds.  We very gradually moved from minutes to hours.  Reunions were coupled with praise and positive reinforcement for desirable behaviors she displayed upon being separated and while apart (i.e., no destructive chewing, urinating, defecating, barking, et cetera).  It is often suggested that the root origin of separation anxiety in dogs is linked to fear of abandonment.  It took many test runs of leaving and returning, leaving and returning, and leaving and returning for Pinella to understand that separation was temporary.  Together, we mitigated her anxiety by creating an exciting, enjoyable goodbye ritual.  She learned that, while goodbyes are necessary, they aren’t to occur without the accompaniment of a peanut butter snack or, more recently, treats in her tricky treat ball.  

Separation anxiety is suggested to affect 14 percent of our nation’s pets (Kriss, 2019).  It is my personal speculation, however, that this number is highly underestimated as separation anxiety is often overlooked and ascribed to a dog who “misbehaves” or “has bad manners.”  It is not the dog’s responsibility to “wise up” and “fix” their problematic behaviors.  Rather, it begins with responsible dog owners whose duty it is to become familiar with their pet’s body language, cues, and signals.   Kriss (2019) suggests that signs of anxiety in dogs include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Tense body posture
  • Lip smacking
  • Trembling
  • Hypersensitivity to sights or sounds (i.e., alertness to the possible sound of their owner’s return)
  • Barking, growling, howling
  • Defecation, urination
  • Aggression
  • Drooling
  • Depression
  • Destructive chewing
  • Pacing and restlessness
  • Panting
  • Repetitive or compulsive behaviors

Familiarity with your pet’s body language, cues, and signals begins with first understanding the context in which their problematic behaviors occur.  As such, examine whether or not your dog displays any of the aforementioned signs upon your departure from the home.  For example, does the dog begin pacing and panting when you go to the closet and grab your coat and shoes?  If so, this may be an indication of separation anxiety.  If these kinds of behaviors occur across many different contexts, there may be a larger issue at hand aside from separation anxiety.

While some anxiety is healthy and normal, it can become problematic when the dog’s response is disproportionate to that which is average.  The latter has been repeatedly exemplified with Pinella’s fear of fireworks.  This specific fear, also referred to as a phobia, developed while on a walk one evening.  Neighbors were setting off fireworks, and we inconveniently found ourselves in the crossfire.  She froze, unable to move.  Shaken to the core, she looked at me with fear in her eyes.  There existed no amount of praise or treats that would have enticed her and reassured her that she was safe to keep walking.

Since that incident, I have done extensive desensitization training and counterconditioning work with Pinella to help mitigate her symptomology.  While she has demonstrated decreased anxiety symptoms, holidays, such as Independence Day and Memorial Day, continue to be most challenging.  What is most frustrating, however, is the unpredictable nature of firework displays.  I fully support pre-planned displays at Snapchat-3127400465369969040[3234]previously determined locations.  I think it’s wonderful that we, as a society, can come together and celebrate our nation, its freedom, and the veterans who fought for it.  What I find problematic, however, are the displays we see in neighborhoods — those that are unpredictable, unplanned, and unbeknownst to all until it’s essentially too late.  We owe it to our nation’s veterans, anxious pets, and all individuals with exaggerated startle responses to be mindful of how unpredictable firework displays can worsen psychological symptomology.

When Pinella developed a fear of fireworks, we immediately began working together to create an environment where she would feel safe, comfortable, and confident.  As holidays, such as the aforementioned, approach I find myself with a freezer filled with peanut butter Kongs and marrow bones filled with organic pumpkin.  At the sound of the first firework, she will retreat to her safe space under my bed where she has free access to her treats.  The curtains are drawn.  The television and fans are turned on to provide ambient background noise.  Through studying and assessing her body language, I have learned that, while she enjoys my company, constant comfort and too much invasion on her personal space results in increased anxiety.  For that reason, I often find myself staying in the same room as her while allowing her to check-in with me when she needs to.  When you have an anxious pet, it’s important to know what triggers them as well as what comforts them.  Here are some tips to help you in developing a plan to care for and comfort your beloved fur friend:

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Infographic Credit:  That Fish Place – That Pet Place


The aforementioned information highlights the debilitating and unnerving experiences that are commonplace to many of our four-legged companions.  The prevalence of anxiety-related issues in pets is alarming.   As responsible pet owners, it is our duty and moral obligation to understand what our pets are communicating to us and, in turn, identify sensible solutions to make them more calm, confident, and comfortable!


Thanks for taking time out of your day to read another Sit, Stay, Blog post!  Don’t forget to Like and Follow us on Facebook, Twitter,and Instagram! If you have any suggestions for future posts or would like to see your pet featured on Pets on the Net!, leave a comment below or submit your information on Sit, Stay, Blog’s Contact page! 🙂

Until next time,

-T.


References      

Casey, R. (n.d.).  How common is separation anxiety?  Retrieved from https://www.dogstrustdogschool.org.uk/behaviour/separation-anxiety/how-common-is-separation-anxiety/.

Kriss, R. (2019).  Understanding, preventing, and treating dog anxiety.  Retrieved from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/treating-dog-anxiety/.

Posted in Pets on the Net!

Luca the Beautiful Pyrenees!

Meet Luca!  Luca is a beautiful, two-and-a-half year old Pyrenees who teaches the value of calmness and patience.  She’s a beautiful little lady who certainly knows how to steal the hearts of those she meets!

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Me and my buddy, Rory!

  • Name:  Luca
  • How I Got My Name:   Out of nearly 4,000 names, Luca is the only one my owners could agree on!  It might have helped sway them that my dad’s name was Luzenac!
  • Breed:  Great Pyrenees
  • Nickname:  Einstein
  • Age:  2.5 years young!
  • Birthdate:  August 27, 2016
  • Adoption Story:  My owners have always wanted to raise a Great Pyrenees from puppyhood, and so along came me into their lives!
  • Collar Color I Sport Best:  Black and gold!
  • My Fur Family:   I have two fur siblings, Rory and Mardi.  Rory is a Yorkie, and Mardi is a mixed breed.  Word on the street has it that they will also be featured on Pets on the Net! soon!

Luca
Rory, Mardi, and I all sit pretty for the camera!

  • Favorite Fur Friends:  Rory, Mardi, and Finn, of course!
  •  Favorite Activities: I enjoy walking and playing ball, although I most enjoy ball-playing in the house!  It is also a favorite pastime of mine to play with Mardi!  Lucky for me, I also have two human playmates as well – my owners’ granddaughters!
  • Favorite Toys:  I hope it’s not too cliché, but I really favor my tennis ball!  Boy, I have tons of fun romping around with that in the house!
  • Favorite Treats/Food:  Tail Banger Cookies – yum!!
  • Life Lesson Learned from Luca:  The thing about Luca is that she’s known for being the calmest in the pack.  She teaches her fur friends and human family the value of patience in this ever-busy, ever-demanding world we live in!
Posted in Tail-Wagging Dog Blogs

When You: Just Want What’s Best for Them!

Welcome, Sit, Stay, & Bloggers!  This blog post is for pet owners everywhere who are inundated with information about the care and well-being of their pets.  With advancements in medicine and technology, we have become a society equipped to deal with nuisances such as fleas and ticks, diseases such as heartworm, as well as devastating cancer diagnoses.  As more and more research rolls out, however, we are left to decipher the controversial information pertaining to the health and wellness of our pets.  One veterinarian screams “Yay, heartworm preventatives for all,” while another advises pet owners to take precautionary measures before considering such products.  This controversy invites feelings of confusion and misguidance in pet lovers, and it ultimately becomes our mission to determine right from wrong when it comes to making health conscious choices for our furry friends.
***Disclaimer:  None of the information contained herein is presented to serve as veterinarian or medical advice.  Always consult with a trusted veterinarian about the health, wellness, and medical needs of your pets!


Story Time:

In the recent months, Pinella and I have had a variety of experiences that have left me feeling as described above — confused and misguided.  This all began in August when I discovered…let’s just say…something that did not belong in her bag of kibble.  I called the company, immediately expressed my experience and relevant feelings, and, as a token of their sorrow, was sent coupons…for their food.  Now, I consider myself to be a very reasonable individual, and I understand that strange things can happen between the production and distribution of food products.  However, I had been contemplating transitioning Pinella to a higher quality food, and this particular experience confirmed my decision that it was, indeed, time.  The next step:  Researching pet foods.  Cue the inundation of conflicting, controversial information.  Want to feed raw?   Beware of potential bacteria contained in raw meat (Lee, n.d.).  Considering a grain-free diet?  Make sure you brush up on your reading about the Food and Drug Administration’s investigation into the possible link to grain-free diets and canine dilated cardiomyopathy (Food and Drug Administration, 2018).  What is a “high quality” dog food anyway?  Watch the documentary Pet Fooled on Netflix, and you tell me!

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Pinella recently took a trip to the store as inspiration to write about health conscious food choices!

In addition to grappling with which pet food to transition Pinella to, I had another concern on my mind:  vaccinations.  Now, to set the record straight, I am in NO WAY against vaccinating dogs (or humans).  However, I have done a great deal of reading about the differences between core and non-core vaccines and, again, feel misguided and confused.  Core vaccines, such as rabies and distemper, help prevent fatal diseases and are not only recommended but required by law in some states (PetMD, n.d.).  Non-core vaccines include those for Lyme disease, canine influenza, and kennel cough (Bordetella) which are reportedly only recommended depending on the dog’s lifestyle and living environment (i.e. tick-prone exposure, frequent boarding) (PetMD, n.d.).

As I looked toward Pinella’s yearly checkup appointment last month, I reviewed her vaccination list and read the following:  Rabies, Bordetella, Canine Influenza, and Lyme.  Previously, her veterinarian and I decided against Bordetella and Canine Influenza as boarding for her is nonexistent, and exposure to other dogs is limited.  That left me to question, is the Lyme vaccine core?  Is it a non-core vaccine?  While I was not surprised to discover it is a non-core vaccination, I was surprised to learn that the jury is still out regarding whether or not its benefits outweigh its risks.  Most surprisingly, administration of the vaccine for Lyme disease is suggested to be controversial and debated by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (PedMD, n.d.).  Through further investigation about this controversy, I discovered a report based on research conducted at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, wherein it was discovered that 95 percent of dogs exposed to the Lyme disease bacteria, B. burgdorferi, never experienced or displayed sickness from the bacteria (Becker, 2017).  In drawing my own conclusions, it appears that the Lyme vaccine, similar to the vaccines for kennel cough and canine influenza, truly is lifestyle-dependent.

So, again, the question arises:  Why are these vaccines being repeatedly administered without any investigation into whether or not the pet’s lifestyle warrants a need?  The best consensus on the internet points to the fact that vaccines serve as a steady source of income for veterinarians.  Thus, decreasing the quantity of vaccines administered leads to decreased income.  Ultimately, the burden is placed on the pet owner to piece apart this controversial information and make informed decisions about the animal’s welfare.

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Exercise is our favorite way to promote health and wellness!
Next comes my struggle with flea, tick, and heartworm preventatives.  You can do a Google search on any of these products and uncover a plethora of conflicting evidence.  Keywords like “carcinogen,” “flea resistance to topical products,” and “side effect of seizures” will pop up.  In fact, I did a search for “Flea and tick preventatives – risks and benefits” and discovered a list of alarming news posts (see below).  By means of speculation, one can argue the benefits of using these products include reduced risk of contact with fleas, ticks, and heartworm, decreased chance of flea infestation, lessened risk of contracting parasites and other illnesses, et cetera. However, as demonstrated below, there exists research indicating that the chemicals contained in these products may be to blame for various adverse effects.  As a pet owner, I remain conflicted yet again, not only with whether or not to use these products but also with the products’ mechanisms of action.  For instance, if a flea and tick preventative is not a repelling agent (which many are not), the flea and/or tick can still come in contact with the animal and, therefore, bite and cause irritation and infection.  Sure, the chemicals in the preventative will kill the insects eventually (usually within 12 hours of contact), but couldn’t one also argue that by applying these products, we are using the animal as a way to prevent infestation in our own homes (No judgement zone for those who do.  I’m guilty of it too!)?  Possibly.  However, one thing remains consistent throughout:  The evidence is conflicting.

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As I have reiterated throughout, I am in no way asserting that one care approach for your pet is better than the other because, quite frankly, the research points in both directions.  What I am saying is that no matter how many hours you spend digging through scholarly research articles, anecdotal evidence, news postings, and veterinarian blog sites, there are no clear-cut answers.  What is of most importance is that you, the pet owner, educate yourself.  Watch documentaries.  Read scholarly research supported by empirical evidence.  Ask your veterinarian questions about their methods of care.  Consult with other veterinarians, and don’t be afraid to get a second opinion.  Most importantly, advocate for your pet by making informed decisions about their care.  After all, we only want what’s best for our pets, and if you’re anything like myself, you’ll go to great odds to get the best.

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Pinella celebrated her 3rd birthday on 9/21!  Show her some love in the comments below! 🙂
As always, thank you for reading.  Don’t forget to “Like,” “Share,” and “Follow” Sit, Stay, & Blog on Facebook and Twitter!

Until next time! 🙂

-T.


References

Becker, K. (2017). Lyme disease:  Should you be concerned?  Retrieved from https://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2017/04/05/canine-lyme-disease-prevention-tips.aspx

Lee, E. (n.d.).  Raw dog food diet:  Dietary concerns, benefits, and risks.  Retrieved from https://pets.webmd.com/dogs/guide/raw-dog-food-dietary-concerns-benefits-and-risks#1

PetMD.  (n.d.)  Dog vaccinations:  A schedule for every life stage.  Retrieved from https://www.petmd.com/dog/care/dog-vaccinations-for-every-lifestage

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (n.d.).  FDA investigating potential connection between diet and cases of canine heart disease.  Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/NewsEvents/CVMUpdates/ucm613305.html

Posted in Uncategorized

What It Means To: Take a Break From Blogging

WELCOME BACK, READERS OF SIT, STAY, & BLOG! 🙂

If you’re new, have no fear!  It’s been so long since my last post that I, too, almost feel new!  When I logged  into my blog site, it was ironic that my last [unfinished] draft was entitled, “What It Means To:  Start a New Semester.”  Since you’ve heard from me, I’ve been through roughly 16 tiresome, yet eventful and fulfilling weeks that comprised my fifth semester in graduate school!  Truth be told, I’ve gotten a lot of questions in the past few weeks like “When are you going to post on your blog again?” or received comments like “Hey, it’s been a while since you’ve posted.”  To that I attest:  Guilty as charged!  I admit I neglected my passion for Sit, Stay, & Blog for far longer than I anticipated, but I am fully satisfied with my decision to take a break from blogging and focus on my studies and my need for self-care.  I utilized my time away to read other peoples’ blogs, gain ideas for future blog posts, and develop strategies to network with others to create meaningful content for my readers.  Doing so allowed me to fine-tune my vision for Sit, Stay, & Blog and the type of content I want to create.

With all of that in mind, I wanted to create this casual blog post to bring my readers up-to-date with what I’ve been up to for the last 16 weeks and where I envision myself and Sit, Stay, & Blog to be in the upcoming months!  Enjoy! 🙂


With regard to my graduate student life, I have been incredibly busy fulfilling my semester duties, working to advance my career, and becoming immersed in real-world clinical work.  As such, I have:

  • Presented research at 2 Statewide Conferences and 1 National ConferenceNew Jersey Counseling Association Conference 2018 (4)
  • Attended and presented at the 2018 American Counseling Association Conference in Atlanta, Georgia
  • Received the 2018  Mary Lou Ramsey Graduate Student Award
  • Spoken about about Animal-Assisted Therapy at my University’s induction ceremony for Chi Sigma Iota:  The International Honor Society in Counseling
  • Written 20 academic papers
    • That’s 132 pages and 29,168 words total!
  • Completed 365 out of 600 required clinical internship hours
  • Completed 9 credits toward my 60-credit master’s degree
  • Registered for two required licensure exams
  • Started both of my summer courses

Life for me doesn’t stop as a graduate student!  I’ve also maintained my status as a volunteer at Susquehanna Service Dogs through:

  • Working to generate continued interest in a Campus Puppy Raising Club at my undergraduate institution
  • Creating and writing up a formal club proposal and club constitution to be submitted to my undergraduate university
  • Being granted “unofficial club status” at my undergraduate institution which will (fingers crossed) be designated as “official” in Fall 2018.
  • Working with fellow club members to raise over $1,000 for Susquehanna Service Dogs
  • Participating in the 2018 Highmark Walk for a Healthy Community
  • Creating a Campus Puppy Raising Program guide to be distributed to university personnel for their review and reference when considering college student puppy raising

Of course, I would be a hypocrite if I neglected to incorporate some self-care activities, especially considering the content of my last blog post!  As such, I have:

  • Read 4 books
    1.  Blackout Girl:  Growing Up and Drying Out in America – Jennifer Storm
    2.  Leave the Light On:  A Memoir of Recovery and Self-Discovery – Jennifer Storm
    3.  Picking Up the Pieces Without Picking Up – Jennifer Storm
    4.  Weekends with Daisy – Sharron Kahn Luttrell

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  • Finished four seasons of Friends (I’m now contemplating my judgment for not introducing this show into my life sooner!)
  • Took Pinella on countless walks and enjoyed Friday afternoon naps together
  • Visited family back home and spent time snuggling up with my precious childhood puppy, Maggie (see adorable photos of Maggie below!)
  • Trained for a 10K
  • Completed my first 2 5Ks of 2018 with Pinella and Alex

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In addition to my (hopefully) weekly blog post schedule, here’s what else I’ll be up to throughout the remainder of the year:

  • Apply for and work through my Animal-Assisted Psychotherapy Certification
  • Complete the remainder of my internship hours
  • Work on a journal publication for the research I have presented
  • Muddle through my thoughts about how to start my book-writing journey
  • Start a new research project
  • Conquer upcoming 5Ks and continue my training to (hopefully) prep for an October half-marathon
  • Take my Comprehensive Examination and the National Counselor Examination for Licensure and Certification
  • Complete the remaining 5 courses required to graduate with my MASTER’S DEGREE!

My upcoming visions for Sit, Stay, & Blog:

  • Book reviews
  • More “What It Means To” content
  • Featured segments of fellow service dog raisers
  • Guest pet blogs and appearances
  • Dog blogs galore!

 


Although this blog post wasn’t very rich in content, I hope you’ve gained a better understanding of what I’ve been up to and where I am headed in the next few months!  My visions for Sit, Stay, & Blog include weekly posts and varying types of new content.  If I fall behind on blog posts, refer to the section above regarding “what else I’ll be up to throughout the remainder of the year” and blame it on that!  😉

Thanks for reading!  If you haven’t already, don’t forget to Like and Follow Sit, Stay, and Blog on Facebook and Twitter to stay up-to-date on all of my upcoming posts!  🙂

-T.